3D models of dilated cardiomyopathy : Shaping the chemical, physical and topographical properties of biomaterials to mimic the cardiac extracellular matrix Article - Juin 2021

Marie Camman, Pierre Joanne, Onnik Agbulut, Christophe Hélary

Marie Camman, Pierre Joanne, Onnik Agbulut, Christophe Hélary, « 3D models of dilated cardiomyopathy : Shaping the chemical, physical and topographical properties of biomaterials to mimic the cardiac extracellular matrix  », Bioactive Materials, juin 2021. ISSN 2452-199X

Abstract

The pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), one major cause of heart failure, is characterized by the dilation of the heart but remains poorly understood because of the lack of adequate in vitro models. Current 2D models do not allow for the 3D organotypic organization of cardiomyocytes and do not reproduce the ECM perturbations. In this review, the different strategies to mimic the chemical, physical and topographical properties of the cardiac tissue affected by DCM are presented. The advantages and drawbacks of techniques generating anisotropy required for the cardiomyocytes alignment are discussed. In addition, the different methods creating macroporosity and favoring organotypic organization are compared. Besides, the advances in the induced pluripotent stem cells technology to generate cardiac cells from healthy or DCM patients will be described. Thanks to the biomaterial design, some features of the DCM extracellular matrix such as stiffness, porosity, topography or chemical changes can impact the cardiomyocytes function in vitro and increase their maturation. By mimicking the affected heart, both at the cellular and at the tissue level, 3D models will enable a better understanding of the pathology and favor the discovery of novel therapies.

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