Iron metabolism imbalance at the time of listing increases overall and infectious mortality after liver transplantation Article - 2020

Élodie Fallet, Michel Rayar, Amandine Landrieux, Christophe Camus, Pauline Houssel-Debry, Caroline Jezequel, Ludivine Legros, Thomas Uguen, Martine Ropert-Bouchet, Karim Boudjema, Dominique Guyader, Edouard Bardou-Jacquet

Élodie Fallet, Michel Rayar, Amandine Landrieux, Christophe Camus, Pauline Houssel-Debry, Caroline Jezequel, Ludivine Legros, Thomas Uguen, Martine Ropert-Bouchet, Karim Boudjema, Dominique Guyader, Edouard Bardou-Jacquet, « Iron metabolism imbalance at the time of listing increases overall and infectious mortality after liver transplantation  », World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2020, pp. 1938-1949. ISSN 1007-9327

Abstract

BACKGROUND Liver transplantation (LT) is the best treatment for patients with liver cancer or end stage cirrhosis, but it is still associated with a significant mortality. Therefore identifying factors associated with mortality could help improve patient management. The impact of iron metabolism, which could be a relevant therapeutic target, yield discrepant results in this setting. Previous studies suggest that increased serum ferritin is associated with higher mortality. Surprisingly iron deficiency which is a well described risk factor in critically ill patients has not been considered. AIM To assess the impact of pre-transplant iron metabolism parameters on post-transplant survival. METHODS From 2001 to 2011, 553 patients who underwent LT with iron metabolism parameters available at LT evaluation were included. Data were prospectively recorded at the time of evaluation and at the time of LT regarding donor and recipient. Serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TS) were studied as continuous and categorical variable. Cox regression analysis was used to determine mortality risks factors. Follow-up data were obtained from the local and national database regarding causes of death. RESULTS At the end of a 95-mo median follow-up, 196 patients were dead, 38 of them because of infections. In multivariate analysis, overall mortality was significantly associated with TS &gt ; 75% [HR 1.73 (1.14 ; 2.63)], SF &lt ; 100 mu g/L [HR 1.62 (1.12 ; 2.35)], hepatocellular carcinoma [HR 1.58 (1.15 ; 2.26)], estimated glomerular filtration rate (CKD EPI Cystatin C) [HR 0.99 (0.98 ; 0.99)], and packed red blood cell transfusion [HR 1.05 (1.03 ; 1.08)]. Kaplan Meier curves show that patients with low SF (&lt ; 100 mu g/L) or high SF (&gt ; 400 mu g/L) have lower survival rates at 36 mo than patients with normal SF (P = 0.008 and P = 0.016 respectively). Patients with TS higher than 75% had higher mortality at 12 mo (91.4% +/- 1.4% vs 84.6% +/- 3.1%, P = 0.039). TS &gt ; 75% was significantly associated with infection related death [HR 3.06 (1.13 ; 8.23)]. CONCLUSION Our results show that iron metabolism imbalance (either deficiency or overload) is associated with post-transplant overall and infectious mortality. Impact of iron supplementation or depletion should be assessed in prospective study.

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