On the Importance of Non-Gaussianity in Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Article - Janvier 2023

Angelina El Ghaziri, Nizar Bouhlel, Natalia Sapoukhina, David Rousseau

Angelina El Ghaziri, Nizar Bouhlel, Natalia Sapoukhina, David Rousseau, « On the Importance of Non-Gaussianity in Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging  », Remote Sensing, janvier 2023, p. 528. ISSN 2072-4292

Abstract

We propose a mathematical study of the statistics of chlorophyll fluorescence indices. While most of the literature assumes Gaussian distributions for these indices, we demonstrate their fundamental non-Gaussian nature. Indeed, while the noise in the raw fluorescence images can be assumed as Gaussian additive, the deterministic ratio between them produces nonlinear non-Gaussian distributions. We investigate the states in which this non-Gaussianity can affect the statistical estimation when wrongly approached with linear estimators. We provide an expectation–maximization estimator adapted to the non-Gaussian distributions. We illustrate the interest of this estimator with simulations from images of chlorophyll fluorescence indices.. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach by comparison with the standard Gaussian assumption. Our expectation–maximization estimator shows low estimation errors reaching seven percent for a more pronounced deviation from Gaussianity compared to Gaussianity assumptions estimators rising to more than 70 percent estimation error. These results show the importance of considering rigorous mathematical estimation approaches in chlorophyll fluorescence indices. The application of this work could be extended to various vegetation indices also made up of a ratio of Gaussian distributions.

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