Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid-Derived Catabolites as Potential Biomarkers of Protein and Amino Acid Deficiency in Rats Article - 2021

Joanna Moro, Nadezda Khodorova, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Catherine Tardivel, Thierry Berton, Jean-Charles Martin, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Delphine Jouan-Rimbaud Bouveresse

Joanna Moro, Nadezda Khodorova, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Catherine Tardivel, Thierry Berton, Jean-Charles Martin, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Delphine Jouan-Rimbaud Bouveresse, « Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid-Derived Catabolites as Potential Biomarkers of Protein and Amino Acid Deficiency in Rats  », Nutrients, 2021, p. 1567. ISSN 2072-6643

Abstract

Objective : Dietary intakes must cover protein and essential amino acid (EAA) requirements. For this purpose, different methods have been developed such as the nitrogen balance method, factorial method, or AA tracer studies. However, these methods are either invasive or imprecise, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2013) recommends new methods and, in particular, metabolomics. The aim of this study is to determine total protein/EAA requirement in the plasma and urine of growing rats. Methods : 36 weanling rats were fed with diets containing 3, 5, 8, 12, 15, and 20% protein for 3 weeks. During experimentation, urine was collected using metabolic cages, and blood from the portal vein and vena was taken at the end of the experiment. Metabolomics analyses were performed using LC-MS, and the data were analyzed with a multivariate analysis model, partial least Squares (PLS) regression, and independent componentdiscriminant analysis (ICDA). Each discriminant metabolite identified by PLS or ICDA was tested by one-way ANOVA to evaluate the effect of diet. Results : PLS and ICDA allowed us to identify discriminating metabolites between different diet groups. Protein deficiency led to an increase in the AA catabolism enzyme systems inducing the production of breakdown metabolites in the plasma and urine. Conclusion : These results indicate that metabolites are specific for the state of EAA deficiency and sufficiency. Some types of biomarkers such as AA degradation metabolites appear to be specific candidates for protein/EAA requirement.

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