Spectrum and Prognosis of Noninfectious Renal Mixed Cryoglobulinemic GN Article - Janvier 2016

Mohamad Zaidan, Benjamin Terrier, Agnieszka Pozdzik, Thierry Frouget, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Christian Combe, Sébastien Lepreux, Aurélie Hummel, Laure-Hélène Nöel, Isabelle Marie, Bruno Legallicier, Arnaud François, Antoine Huart, David Launay, Gilles Kaplanski, Franck Bridoux, Philippe Vanhille, Raifah Makdassi, Jean-François Augusto, Philippe Rouvier, Alexandre Karras, Chantal Jouanneau, Marie-Christine Verpont, Patrice Callard, Fabrice Carrat, Olivier Hermine, Jean-Marc Léger, Xavier Mariette, Patricia Senet, David Saadoun, Pierre Ronco, Isabelle Brochériou, Patrice Cacoub, Emmanuelle Plaisier

Mohamad Zaidan, Benjamin Terrier, Agnieszka Pozdzik, Thierry Frouget, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Christian Combe, Sébastien Lepreux, Aurélie Hummel, Laure-Hélène Nöel, Isabelle Marie, Bruno Legallicier, Arnaud François, Antoine Huart, David Launay, Gilles Kaplanski, Franck Bridoux, Philippe Vanhille, Raifah Makdassi, Jean-François Augusto, Philippe Rouvier, Alexandre Karras, Chantal Jouanneau, Marie-Christine Verpont, Patrice Callard, Fabrice Carrat, Olivier Hermine, Jean-Marc Léger, Xavier Mariette, Patricia Senet, David Saadoun, Pierre Ronco, Isabelle Brochériou, Patrice Cacoub, Emmanuelle Plaisier, « Spectrum and Prognosis of Noninfectious Renal Mixed Cryoglobulinemic GN  », Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, janvier 2016, pp. 1213—1224. ISSN 1046-6673

Abstract

Noninfectious mixed cryoglobulinemic GN (MCGN) has been poorly investigated. We analyzed presentation and outcome of 80 patients with biopsy-proven MCGN, which were identified in the retrospective French CryoVas survey. MCGN was related to primary Sjögren’s syndrome in 22.5% of patients and to lymphoproliferative disorders in 28.7% of patients, and was defined as essential in 48.8% of patients. At presentation, hematuria, proteinuria ≥1 g/d, hypertension, and renal failure were observed in 97.4%, 84.8%, 85.3%, and 82.3% of cases, respectively. Mean±eGFR was 39.5±20.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Membranoproliferative GN was the predominant histologic pattern, observed in 89.6% of cases. Renal interstitium inflammatory infiltrates were observed in 50% of cases. First-line treatment consisted of steroids alone (27.6%) or in association with rituximab (21.1%), alkylating agents (36.8%) or a combination of cyclophosphamide and rituximab (10.5%). After a mean follow-up of 49.9±45.5 months, 42.7% of patients relapsed with a renal flare in 75% of cases. At last follow-up, mean eGFR was 50.2±26.1 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with 9% of patients having reached ESRD ; 59% and 50% of patients achieved complete clinical and renal remission, respectively. A rituximab+steroids regimen prevented relapses more effectively than steroids alone or a cyclophosphamide+steroids combination did, but was associated with a higher rate of early death when used as first-line therapy. Severe infections and new-onset B-cell lymphoma occurred in 29.1% and 8.9% of cases, respectively ; 24% of patients died. In conclusion, noninfectious MCGN has a poor long-term outcome with severe infections as the main cause of death

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