Tracking of marine predators to protect Southern Ocean ecosystems Article - Avril 2020

Mark A. Hindell, Ryan R. Reisinger, Yan Ropert‐coudert, Luis A. Huckstädt, Philip N. Trathan, Horst Bornemann, Jean-Benoît Charrassin, Steven Chown, Daniel P. Costa, Bruno Danis, Mary-Anne Lea, David Thompson, Leigh G. Torres, Anton van de Putte, Rachael Alderman, Virginia Andrews-Goff, Ben Arthur, Grant Ballard, John Bengtson, Marthán N. Bester, Arnoldus Schytte Blix, Lars Boehme, Charles-André Bost, Peter Boveng, Jaimie Cleeland, Rochelle Constantine, Stuart Corney, Robert J. M. Crawford, Luciano Dalla Rosa, P. J. Nico de Bruyn, Karine Delord, Sébastien Descamps, Mike Double, Louise Emmerson, Michael A. Fedak, Ari Friedlaender, Nick Gales, Michael Goebel, Kimberly T. Goetz, Christophe Guinet, Simon D. Goldsworthy, Robert G. Harcourt, Jefferson T. Hinke, Kerstin Jerosch, Akiko Kato, Knowles R. Kerry, Roger Kirkwood, Gerald L. Kooyman, Kit M. Kovacs, Kieran Lawton, Andrew D. Lowther, Christian Lydersen, Philip O'B. Lyver, Azwianewi B. Makhado, Maria Márquez, Birgitte I. Mcdonald, Clive R. Mcmahon, Mônica M. C. Muelbert, Dominik Nachtsheim, Keith W. Nicholls, Erling S. Nordøy, Silvia Olmastroni, Richard A. Phillips, Pierre Pistorius, Joachim Plötz, Klemens Pütz, Norman Ratcliffe, Peter Ryan, Mercedes Santos, Colin Southwell, Iain Staniland, Akinori Takahashi, Arnaud Tarroux, Wayne Trivelpiece, Ewan Wakefield, Henri Weimerskirch, Barbara Wienecke, José C. Xavier, Simon Wotherspoon, Ian D. Jonsen, Ben Raymond

Mark A. Hindell, Ryan R. Reisinger, Yan Ropert‐coudert, Luis A. Huckstädt, Philip N. Trathan, Horst Bornemann, Jean-Benoît Charrassin, Steven Chown, Daniel P. Costa, Bruno Danis, Mary-Anne Lea, David Thompson, Leigh G. Torres, Anton van de Putte, Rachael Alderman, Virginia Andrews-Goff, Ben Arthur, Grant Ballard, John Bengtson, Marthán N. Bester, Arnoldus Schytte Blix, Lars Boehme, Charles-André Bost, Peter Boveng, Jaimie Cleeland, Rochelle Constantine, Stuart Corney, Robert J. M. Crawford, Luciano Dalla Rosa, P. J. Nico de Bruyn, Karine Delord, Sébastien Descamps, Mike Double, Louise Emmerson, Michael A. Fedak, Ari Friedlaender, Nick Gales, Michael Goebel, Kimberly T. Goetz, Christophe Guinet, Simon D. Goldsworthy, Robert G. Harcourt, Jefferson T. Hinke, Kerstin Jerosch, Akiko Kato, Knowles R. Kerry, Roger Kirkwood, Gerald L. Kooyman, Kit M. Kovacs, Kieran Lawton, Andrew D. Lowther, Christian Lydersen, Philip O'B. Lyver, Azwianewi B. Makhado, Maria Márquez, Birgitte I. Mcdonald, Clive R. Mcmahon, Mônica M. C. Muelbert, Dominik Nachtsheim, Keith W. Nicholls, Erling S. Nordøy, Silvia Olmastroni, Richard A. Phillips, Pierre Pistorius, Joachim Plötz, Klemens Pütz, Norman Ratcliffe, Peter Ryan, Mercedes Santos, Colin Southwell, Iain Staniland, Akinori Takahashi, Arnaud Tarroux, Wayne Trivelpiece, Ewan Wakefield, Henri Weimerskirch, Barbara Wienecke, José C. Xavier, Simon Wotherspoon, Ian D. Jonsen, Ben Raymond, « Tracking of marine predators to protect Southern Ocean ecosystems  », Nature, avril 2020, pp. 87–92. ISSN 0028-0836

Abstract

Southern Ocean ecosystems are under pressure from resource exploitation and climate change1,2. Mitigation requires the identification and protection of Areas of Ecological Significance (AESs), which have so far not been determined at the ocean-basin scale. Here, using assemblage-level tracking of marine predators, we identify AESs for this globally important region and assess current threats and protection levels. Integration of more than 4,000 tracks from 17 bird and mammal species reveals AESs around sub-Antarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and over the Antarctic continental shelf. Fishing pressure is disproportionately concentrated inside AESs, and climate change over the next century is predicted to impose pressure on these areas, particularly around the Antarctic continent. At present, 7.1% of the ocean south of 40°S is under formal protection, including 29% of the total AESs. The establishment and regular revision of networks of protection that encompass AESs are needed to provide long-term mitigation of growing pressures on Southern Ocean ecosystems.

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